Q&A: Camallanus

Last week we released a new video about helminthiasis in fish, caused by the nematode Camallanus sp. One of our subscribers asked an interesting question about the life cycle of the helminth and how long larvae can survive without a host. We had to do some research ourselves to find the answers, but we got them!

𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝘀𝗵𝗼𝗿𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝘀𝘄𝗲𝗿𝘀
𝘘: How long will Camallanus survive in an aquarium without fish?
𝘈: Camallanus can survive in the aquarium without fish for at least 3 weeks and up to 3 months.

𝘘: Can Camallanus survive and spread amongst shrimps or other crustaceans?
𝘈: Some Camallanus need shrimp (or similar) to develop, but they do not spread amongst them. These Camallanus spread when the shrimp are eaten by fish, and then the fish is infected.

𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗹𝗼𝗻𝗴 𝗮𝗻𝘀𝘄𝗲𝗿
According to literature, the duration of the development of Camallanidae larvae ranges from 1 to 8 weeks and depends on the temperature of the water. At a temperature of 20-22 °C, the development of the Camallanus lacustris larvae in the intermediate host is 10-11 days. Free-living larvae of Camallanus cotti are able to survive (in an open environment outside the host) for more than 3 weeks and according to some sources even up to 3 months. But the older the larvae, the weaker it becomes: its ability to be infectious decreases.
In other literature we found information that the larvae of Camallanus cotti are able to infect fish (the definitive host) without participating in the development cycle of an intermediate host (arthropods). The prepatent period – the period during which the larvae in the definitive host grows into a sexually matured adult – is also about 3 months. Furthermore, there is no vertical distribution from arthropod to arthropod. But, if the intermediate host was eaten by the facultative host and then the facultative host was eaten by the definitive host, the survival rate of the helminth larvae is drastically reduced. Therefore, any fight against this parasite should consist not only of the removal of adults from the body of the fish, but also the destruction of free-living larvae, in compliance with the timing of their development. eSHa -ndx can be used against Camallanus and other nematodes. eSHa -ndx is a 1 day treatment only, so you will get rid of nematodes very fast! For egg-laying nematode worms we recommend to repeat the treatment after two weeks.

𝗛𝗼𝘄 𝘁𝗼 𝗴𝗲𝘁 𝗿𝗶𝗱 𝗼𝗳 𝗖𝗮𝗺𝗮𝗹𝗹𝗮𝗻𝘂𝘀?
Treat the aquarium, because they can be everywhere! Our product eSHa -ndx, which contains Levamisole, can be used against Camallanus and other nematodes. The standard treatment works sufficient in most cases, but for egg-laying nematode worms we recommend to repeat the treatment after two weeks.

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